Civil Air Patrol
SAV CAP Civil Air Patrol

Stan/Eval News – 01/07/2019 – Proficiency Flights

01/07/2019: Proficiency Flights

Good news…If case you haven’t heard, N288CP is back from its annual inspection and all of the discrepancies have been worked/fixed.  This includes the ADS-B updates to the G1000 system and correcting the bad heading issues that restricted us from IFR flights.  Good to go all missions, VFR or IFR.

Along with that there is still money in the monthly proficiency flight program.  Restrictions are as before, must be one of the published proficiency flight profiles, and you must document “non-accomplished” details in your debriefing.

Take advantage of this “free” flying while the funds are there.

07/02/2018: Ramp Checks

Came across an interesting article in one of my AOPA emails.  I’ve copied the gist of it here for your reading pleasure.  Keep in mind that if it happens to you, you will have to provide all the documentation as on a “real” investigation:

“You lined up on the runway at a towered airport following your full preflight inspection. As you applied full throttle, something didn’t feel right.

Even though the instruments and gauges were within acceptable ranges, you decided to abort the takeoff out of an abundance of caution and advised ATC that you wanted to taxi back to the ramp. This was not an “incident,” and certainly not an “accident,” so you are shocked when you receive a letter from an FAA inspector a couple of weeks later stating that she is “investigating an occurrence.”

If you find yourself the subject of an FAA occurrence investigation, it does not necessarily mean that you did anything wrong. In Order 8020.11C, the FAA defines occurrence as an event, other than an accident or incident, that requires investigation by the Flight Standards Service for its potential impact on safety. This can include aborted takeoffs, turn-backs, or diversions for reasons other than weather. Furthermore, aborted takeoffs are often subject to mandatory occurrence reports by ATC.

During these investigations, the FAA frequently requests documents similar to what would be requested during a ramp check. For example, they may request copies of logbooks, pilot certificates, and medical certificates. The FAA is entitled to see any of this documentation regardless of the circumstances. Although the FAA may not be investigating a pilot deviation, its inquiries often uncover unrelated issues such as expired medicals, lapsed currency, or overdue annual inspections.”

05/12/2018: iPad and EFBs

Sportys had a recent article titled “iPad legal briefing – what pilots need to know.” Part of that article included the chart below.  As you know, CAP allows use of just about all EFBs and hasn’t changed it guidance on their use, but the chart is an easy reminder of your responsibilities. CLICK ON ICON TO EXPAND.  (Once expanded, depending on your browser you may have to click on the photo again.)

 03/14/2018: Goodbye DUATS II

The FAA will discontinue the Direct User Access Terminal Service (DUATS II) Program, effective May 16, 2018. Internet services, including access to weather and aeronautical information, flight plan filing and automated services will remain available at no charge to pilots at

To continue to receive free services, users are encouraged to register with Over the next 60 days, the FAA will work with current DUATS II providers on transition activities, including conducting pilot outreach, establishing commercial interfaces, and providing user migration assistance.

02/16/2018: SAR Mission Call Signs

At a recent meeting we discussed what Call Sign to use on live versus training missions.  I “confirmed” that we “always” use our normal Call Sign…currently CAP938 (N639CP).

Looks like the guidance I gave out was not quite in compliance…

Under eServices, Airfield Operations; the new National Website has an article titled “RESCUE Call Sign Guidance.”  The following are portions from that guidance:

“IAMSAR Manual Defines Rescue as¦
An operation to retrieve persons in distress, provide for their initial medical or other needs, and deliver them to a place of safety.
Vol 3, Section 2 Rendering Assistance
Prefix call sign
During search and rescue missions and exercises it is recommended that
the following prefix call signs be used before the ordinary radio call sign or as
a specific mission call sign:
RESCUE for all airborne units involved in a rescue Mission.

Combined Communications Electronics Board,
ACP 135 (F) – Communications Instructions – Distress and Rescue Procedures
702. Search and Rescue (SAR) Call Sign List

Call signs for assigned SAR craft will consist of the prefix RESCUE followed by the normal SAR call
sign. In the case of helicopters and boats the SAR call sign will be RESCUE Helicopter/Boat (No.______).

The recommended CAP call sign in actual SAR activities would be RESCUE CAP xxxx

01/26/2018: Uploading Checkride Data

We’ve had a couple of checkrides recently that were “disapproved” because of problems with eServices entries (or lack of entries) and associated documentation that was not uploaded.

The USAF/CAP have changed what’s “acceptable”/required to “confirm” or approve your checkrides.  Make sure you scan/upload the following after each checkride:

  • Completed Form 5 or Form 91
  • Graded Aircraft Questionaires (Don’t forget to select the “Aircraft Type” before you upload.  On mine, I forgot to select C-182 and that caused a problem…showed I was C-172 current, but not C-182.)
  • Medical Certificate/BasicMed Course Certificate
  • Copy of your Flight Review “sticker” when you update your review.

As noted elsewhere, everything now must be current in WMIRS for flight approvals…WMIRS rules all…it gets this information from eServices, and if it’s wrong in eServices, WMIRS will show you as not qualified.

01/15/2018: CAP938 Weight and Balance

In accomplishing a recent Form 5, “we” found an error on the website that continued to call up the wrong aircraft for the interactive weight and balance menu item.  That is now corrected…if you click on the “Weight & Balance” sub-menu item under Resources, you will now get the correct aircraft: CAP938 (N639CP).  The paper printout is/remains correct.

11/17/2017: Forget CAPR60-1…

Starting December 4th, CAP flying regulation 70-1 takes effect.  The R70-1 replaces the old 60-1 Flight Management regulation.  (In fact the “new” CAPR60-1 deals with Cadet Program Management.)

You can get your copy by logging into eServices, check in the “NEWS” section and download a copy of the “preview.”

Being new, I expect that there might be updates shortly, but so far there are no Region or Wing supplements, and no changes to the regulation as published.

The regulation has some small changes and a few “big” changes that you need to be aware of.  Download a copy and read through it…unless we get additional guidance, starting in roughly 2 weeks, this is how we fly.

Don’t get caught short!

10/13/2017: Something to add to your egress briefings

Although we use headsets and not helmets, the same issue happens.  If it’s ever happened to you that you stepped out of the aircraft without removing your headset, you probably found it’s was not an “easy” pull.
The NTSB issued a Safety Alert (PDF) on Wednesday aimed at pilots who wear helmets while flying that have a cord attached to the aircraft’s internal communication system. Those cords may not easily detach in the case of an emergency, the safety board has found. The board cited two accidents, both involving helicopters.  In one case it was a hindrance, and in the second both crew members died.
I don’t know that we have to start using “intermediate” attaching cords, but it’s certainly worth mentioning during your briefs.
It’s always the simple stuff that makes a big difference.

09/28/2017: Emergency Briefings

Our aircraft is just about ready for service, so we should be thinking about all we have to go through to get back up to speed.

We know it will never happen to you, but just in case…one of those “prep” items should be to review emergency procedures.

The “Savannah Mission Briefing and Checklists” download includes a handy “Emergency of the Day” section that is designed to take you through a different emergency procedure based on day of the month.

Make it a habit to cover this while planning and briefing your missions will make it much more easier if the day comes you have to cope with one of these.

08/12/2017: CAP BasicMed is Here!

BasicMed was implemented by the FAA on May 1st .  This allows CAP pilots to
exercise the privileges of their pilot certificate without a current medical certificate. In
order to do so, pilots will have to comply with the medical requirements contained in the
new FAR Part 68, known as BasicMed.

Usage must be documented in eService just as previous documentation of your FAA certificates.

I’ve copied the implementation documentation in the downloads area for your reference if you decide to go with BasicMed in lieu of the standard FAA medical class certificates.

07/11/2017: “Precision” Patterns

When we get an airplane back, for some of us it will have been a long time since we flew…and you can expect some of the “normal” problems getting back into the game.

I keep harping on flying a stabilized approach…it’s your “safety net” to get back in the “groove” without harming the machinery.

You can fine many sources describing the stabilized approach, and if you scroll down, you’ll find “our” definition of that approach.

Before your next flight, review your airspeeds, configurations, etc. and make sure you stick with them…go around if you’re not stabilized on final rather than “correct” or “take what you get” accepting long touchdowns, short/unexpected touchdowns or going past the almost a good landing and putting us out of business again while the airplane is “fixed”…assuming higher headquarters still thinks we should have an aircraft to work with!

05/26/2017: ICAO Flight Plans UPDATE

International Flight Plan Update
Notice Number: NOTC7186

“…To ensure a safe and seamless transition with full interoperability, the FAA has decided to delay implementation until the Fall of 2017. The additional time will allow all service providers to address required changes identified in testing and integrate enhancements to the international format, while avoiding system changes during the busy summer flying season. The FAA will provide a 30-day advance notice to the public when a final date is selected later this year.
Learn more about the FAA International Flight Plan format by visiting our website for detailed instructions and simplified guidance on how to use the International Flight Plan format.

Any comments or questions may be directed to Flight Service at the link below:

04/28/2017: ICAO Flight Plans

Assuming the FAA doesn’t change the date again, starting June 5th, you will be required to file VFR and IFR flight plans using the ICAO system/forms.

If you use a PDA device to file, what you fill in depends on which program you use…ForeFlight, FltPlan Go, Wing X, etc. all have their own method of completing the aircraft capabilities and filling in the ICAO flight plan.

We’ve updated the website Resources download section to include a briefing on paper ICAO flight plans that you should be familiar with.  We don’t know yet what Clearance Delivery might need once the change is made…maybe nothing different or maybe require answers that align with the ICAO information…

Download/review the briefing so you are ready when needed…

03/21/2017: Starter Duty Cycles

As we are coming into the warmer months how you prime/don’t prime to successfully start the engine the first time you try seems to get trickier all the time.

It’s not uncommon to have to try two or three times to get it right, but something to keep in mind are the starter duty cycle requirements from the POH…

“Operate the starter motor for 10 seconds followed by a 20 second cool down period. This cycle can be repeated two additional times, followed by a ten minute cool down period before resuming cranking. After cool down, operate the starter motor again, three
cycles of 10 seconds followed by 20 seconds of cool down. If the engine still does not start, try to find the cause.”

As reported by Hartzel Engine Technologies (a leader in manufacturing starter motors): “Not following specified duty cycle procedures will cause the starter to overheat and severely damage the unit’s internal components…Most pilots don’t understand that violating the duty cycle just a couple of times will do irreparable damage to the starter.

Take the extra time to follow the correct procedures!

03/04/2017: Traffic Pattern Altitudes (TPA)

In mid/late 2014 the FAA decided to publish “all traffic pattern altitudes, standard and non-standard” in the Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD).

Additionally in late 2016, guidance was that unless a specific traffic pattern altitude is published in the Chart Supplement entry for the airport, it is recommended that propeller-driven aircraft enter the traffic pattern at 1,000 feet above ground level (AGL), and that large and turbine-powered airplanes enter the traffic pattern at an altitude of not less than 1,500 feet AGL or 500 feet above the established pattern altitude. A helicopter operating in the traffic pattern may fly a pattern similar to the airplane pattern at a lower altitude (500 AGL) and closer to the airport.

Additionally, only TPAs that deviate from the recommended altitudes should be published…

You can verify this by checking the A/FD for KSAV, KSSI, KTBR, KJYL and KLHW.

02/05/2017: Match the Numbers

You should be able to match these by rote memory —

Description  Matches KIAS
Best Glide Speed a. 41
Va (3100#) b. 51
Va (2600#) c. 59
Vfe 10° d. 65
Vfe 20° e. 70
Vfe Full f. 72
Vso 0° Bank g. 75
Vso 60° Bank h. 76
Vs1 0° Bank i. 82
Vs1 60° Bank j. 100
Vx k. 101
Vy l. 110
Engine Fail on T/O – Flaps Up m. 120
Engine Fail on T/O Flaps 10°-Full n. 140
Precautionary Landing W/Power
Landing W/O Power Flaps Up
Landing W/O Power Flaps 10°-Full

01/10/2017: FAA issues new “Driver License” Medical Rules

The new “Class III driver license medicals” has been finalized/approved by the FAA.

Stay tuned for CAP guidance on the ruling…last “feelings” were that the Air Force (our boss) is considering requiring CAP pilots to keep getting “regular” Class III (or higher) exams as previously required!

You can read the details here:

AOPA press release:

The entire FAA rule can be found here:

12/28/2016: New Aircraft

If you haven’t heard, we have a new C-182 coming to us this week; N288CP/CAP939.

It is basically the same as our current C-182 with one significant difference – N288CP has the Garmin GFC 700 autopilot…along with the associated Flight Director in lieu of the older KAP400 autopilot we know and “love” in our current aircraft!

We’ll be briefing any other differences when we get a chance to look over N288CP.

One more item.  I’m creating a new “G1000 and GFC Autopilot Tips/Techniques” document that will highlight many of the different ways to work the systems.  It will be updated whenever we discover additional tips, etc.  The document is under the “G1000” section of the webpage Resources…Downloads menu.  Keep checking to make sure you have the latest info.

12/01/2016: Stabilized Approaches

Awhile back we kicked around the “stabilized” approach concept and “published” what we locally consider stabilized.  It’s been a long time since we reviewed it so I’ll repeat it now…

By 200’ AGL –

  1. Proper Airspeed (+10/-5 Knots)
  2. Proper Flight Path…selected/stable aim point
  3. Proper Configuration
  4. Power set…only small minor changes necessary
  5. Sink rate not abnormal…trimmed for approach speed
  6. Verified checklists complete

                If not stable NLT 200’ AGL execute a go-around! (Power…Pitch…Flaps…Gear)

                “On slope…On Speed…with an exit plan”

11/11/2016: Aircraft Issues:

One “non-Aircraft” issue published in KSAV NOTAMS awhile back:

The “North Practice Area” is defined as the airspace between SAV 300ºR and the SAV 360ºR between 15-25 DME.  There is no altitude stratum designated for the area.

Several items have come up recently that we need to be aware of/add to our “things to do.”

  1. Magneto switch in the RIGHT position rather than OFF.  This may be because the previous pilot left it there thinking it was in the Off position, or may have been inadvertently moved there while removing the keys from the slot.  Not grounding the magnetos is definitely a hazard to any of us when preflighting the aircraft.  Please check this a second time when you leave the aircraft.
  2. Control Lock not installed.  It’s nice to have an aircraft that we don’t have to lock as our previous aircraft…not an excuse to leave it “unlocked” and definitely a problem with the wind conditions we experience at times.  Again, confirm you’ve installed this before you leave the aircraft.
  3. Co-Pilot’s door.  More than once, arriving aircrew found the right door was closed, but not “locked.”  Make sure you physically move the internal door handle to the “locked” position before you leave the aircraft.
  4. G1000 Defaults.  We change the DFLTS on the MFD depending on the mission/type scenario we may be running on our SAREX or live taskings.  For example, it is common to put the NAV ANGLE to True rather than Magnetic…another is the GPS CDI that we normally change from SELECTED AUTO AND SYSTEM CDI 2.0NM to 0.30NM and 0.3NM.  When done on your mission…reset to DFLTS or go back to the System Setup page and change back to Magnetic and Auto.   This should be part of the right seater’s preflight checks so we don’t end up for example trying to fly a VOR radial using True North rather than Magnetic…put everything back to “normal” before you shutdown the aircraft!

10/17/2016: Samsung Galaxy Note 7s

Just received notice that the CAP does not allow Samsung Galaxy Note 7 smart phones in the CAP aircraft.  This is a special briefing item that each PIC should cover in their briefing.  If a member does have a Note 7, it should be left somewhere else…do not bring it onto the aircraft.

There are further details in the Wing Commander’s email…which all of you should have gotten.  If you didn’t receive it or need more information…let me know.

09/28/2016: New CAP Guidance on Positive Transfer of Controls

Positive Transfer of Controls (FAA) During flight training, there must always be a clear understanding between the student/evaluatee and flight instructor/evaluator of who has control of the aircraft. Prior to any dual training flight, a briefing should be conducted that includes the procedure for the exchange of flight controls.

The following three-step process for the exchange of flight controls is highly recommended. When a flight instructor/evaluator wishes the student to take control of the aircraft, he/she should say to the student, “You have the flight controls.” The student should acknowledge immediately by saying, “I have the flight controls.” The flight instructor/evaluator confirms by again saying, “You have the flight controls.”

Part of the procedure should be a visual check to ensure that the other person actually has the flight controls. When returning the controls to the flight instructor, the student should follow the same procedure the instructor/evaluator used when giving control to the student. The student should stay on the controls until the instructor/evaluator says: “I have the flight controls.”

There should never be any doubt as to who is flying the airplane at any one time. Numerous accidents have occurred due to a lack of communication or misunderstanding as to who actually had control of the aircraft, particularly between students and flight instructors. Establishing the above procedure during initial training will ensure the formation of a very beneficial habit pattern.

09/09/2016: Transponder use on the Airport Surface

Mike Yodice recently published an article in one of the electronic “airplane” emails that I receive…good update on what’s now considered current use and the transponder…short translation is that you will not be able to rely on the G1000 “auto” transponder system.

“By now, many of you have heard or read that the FAA and air traffic control want us to ensure that our transponders are on and in the altitude reporting mode while operating on movement areas at all airports. If you’re like me and sometimes slow to adapt to change, particularly when it involves ingrained flying habits and procedures, it may take some getting used to. In the meantime, at least for most of us, noncompliance shouldn’t be an issue that leads to FAA enforcement.

If you learned to fly more than a few years ago, you were probably taught to turn your transponder on just prior to takeoff and to turn it off (or to standby) after landing and taxiing off the runway, whether at a towered or non-towered field. For many years this was the practice as promoted in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM). The language in the AIM changed in 2012, 2014, and then again in 2016. In the current chapter 4 of the AIM, it now reads “Civil and military aircraft should operate with the transponder in the altitude reporting mode and ADS-B Out transmissions enabled (if equipped) at all airports, any time the aircraft is positioned on any portion of the airport movement area.” It goes on to relate certain other details, but the basic takeaway is that ATC now wants the transponder on for all operations in movement areas, i.e. at airports with operating control towers.”

08/26/2016: The G1000’s Here…

With the imminent delivery of CAP938 (N639CP) it looks like the “Southern Air Force” is about to enter into a new age.  It’s still a Cessna 182T, but the glass cockpit and full auto-pilot is something we all look forward to.

Please keep checking the website Resources…Download menu to see what’s been added.  There’s a tremendous supply of G1000 training material, and I’m trying to bring what’s necessary and/or best for you to use.

Also keep in mind that this is not a “pilots only” issue.  If you sit in the right seat, perhaps as an Observer or Observer trainee…you need to know the system almost as much as a pilot does!

Can you enter a flight plan…can you change destinations…can you mark a spot and pass the coordinates to the IC…can you change radios…can you swap navigation frequencies…etc…etc…etc.

We all need to get into the books for a bit to get caught up.

But don’t forget, the #1 job is for everyone to get back safe and sound with a successful mission.  If you spend all your time looking at the marvelous glass entertainment, you might not be around to enjoy the rest of life!

07/01/2016: “Sorta engine failure on takeoff roll”

We all harbor biases that can/will affect our decision-making in critical situations.  Two of the most common biases are called “confirmation bias” and “normalcy bias.”

Confirmation bias causes people to process information in ways they already believe to be true and reject ideas to the contrary.  The more emotionally charged the situation is, the more likely this bias occurs.

Normalcy bias comes into play when we are facing “disaster.”  You underestimate the possibility and fail to prepare adequately.  The result is not being able to cope during those critical times.

In a calm situation, your brain can take many seconds to process information.  Under stress that process may slow significantly.  When the brain cannot find an acceptable response, it will fixate on a single default that may or may not be correct.

Aviation always comes down to being an “intellectual” exercise.  It has been misinterpreted many times as being a “hand to eye” coordination issue, but don’t be fooled.  We all have met or know someone that can post phenomenal scores on video games but can’t think their way out of a paper bag.  Good flying requires good thinking.

The secret to “good thinking” is training and preparation before getting into the airplane.

What are your thoughts on a “sorta engine failure on takeoff roll”.

If your answer is something along the line of “…I don’t have to worry about that because Savannah has 9000 feet of runway and if I can’t takeoff or stop in that distance I shouldn’t be flying an airplane…” you’re setting yourself up for failure…to cause an accident and kill people.

If it’s more along the lines of “…I’m 2000 feet pressure altitude; it’s 95 degrees out; with full load and no headwind I should be airborne in 1600 feet…if I haven’t reached 40 knots by 1000 feet somethings wrong and I’ll abort the takeoff…” you’re in a much better position to keep your “demons” under control and safely deliver the equipment and lives entrusted to you.

The way you eat an elephant one bite at a time…use the daily emergency scenarios in the briefing guides to help you prepare for the “unexpected.”

06/11/2016: Li-Ion Battery Fires

Most of us have/use equipment that uses Li-ion batteries; cell phones, ipads, pagers, etc.  Most of the time they are very safe and reliable, but as we have learned over the years, they can and do catch fire.  What would you do if it happens while you’re flying in CAP937?

What to do when a battery overheats

If a Li-ion battery overheats, hisses or bulges, immediately move the device away from flammable materials and place it on a non-combustible surface. If at all possible, remove the battery and put it outdoors to burn out.

A small Li-ion fire can be handled like any other combustible fire. For best result use a foam extinguisher, CO2, ABC dry chemical, powdered graphite, copper powder or soda (sodium carbonate). If the fire occurs in an airplane cabin, the FAA instructs flight attendants to use water or soda pop. Water-based products are most readily available and are appropriate since Li-ion contains very little lithium metal that reacts with water. Water also cools the adjacent area and prevents the fire from spreading. Research laboratories and factories also use water to extinguish Li-ion battery fires. Halon is also used as fire suppressant, but this agent may not be sufficient to extinguish a large Li-ion fire in the cargo bay of an aircraft.

Suspected Li-ion battery destroys laptop Figure 1: Li-ion battery suspected to have destroyed the laptop.
The owner says the laptop popped, hissed, sizzled and began filling the room with smoke.

Source: Shmuel De-Leon

The gas released by a venting Li-ion cell is mainly carbon dioxide (CO2). Other gases that form through heating are vaporized electrolyte consisting of ethylene and/or propylene. Burning gases also include combustion products of organic solvents.

Simple Guidelines for Using Lithium-ion Batteries

  • Lithium-ion batteries contain little lithium metal and in case of a fire they can be dowsed with water. Only lithium-metal batteries require a Class D fire extinguisher.
  • Water interacts with lithium. If a Class D extinguisher is not available to douse a lithium-metal fire, only pour water to prevent the fire from spreading.
  • For best results dowsing a Li-ion fire, use a foam extinguisher, CO2, ABC dry chemical, powdered graphite, copper powder or soda (sodium carbonate) as you would extinguish other combustible fires. Reserve the Class D extinguishers for lithium-metal fires only.
  • If the fire of a burning lithium-ion battery cannot be extinguished, allow the pack to burn in a controlled and safe way
  • Be aware of cell propagation as each cell might be consumed on its own time table when hot. Place a seemingly burned-out pack outside for a time.

(Above information from the “Battery University”)

05/23/2016: GTN Training

Check Resources…Downloads…CAP 937…Garmin GTN-625 menu.

There is an entirely new GTN-625 Training section added that includes some excellent files discussing the various methods of grid searches using the GTN-625.

Many if the items were covered in Tom Ireland’s briefing on using the GTN, but these PDF files have details and techniques that Tom may have missed or glossed over…well worth your effort to study.

05/10/2016: Crosswind Shortcuts

AOPA magazine had a short article this month on crosswind issues.  Part of that covered estimating the amount of crosswind and provided tips some of us learned over many hours of calculating them…learn them now and use those “many hours” for more useful purposes!

1st, use the max wind…if it’s 10 kts gusting to 20 kts, use 20 kts.  Less than 20° off, we consider it all headwind.  20° off is 30%.  30° off is 50%.  45° off is 70%, and above that is basically 100% crosswind.

Degrees off Rwy Crosswind
< 20° 0%
20° 30%
30° 50%
45° 70%
60° or more 100%

05/01/2016: New IFR Filing Guidance.

Effective immediately

  • CAP has established a FILING weather minimum of 500′ AGL and 1 Statute Mile Visibility for departure and destination airfields.  Planned operations below this level are prohibited.
  • IFR operations will be released within 2 hours of sortie takeoff time to permit consideration of current weather conditions.

04/08/2016:  Two items that you might have missed from a recent Seniors meeting:

  1. When filing your flight plans with ATC, use the “G” equipment identifier, i.e. “C182/G“  (No RVSM, GPS and Transponder with Mode C)
  2. CAP937 seems to have a “heavy right wing.”  It’s fine to help by feeding only from the right wing to balance, BUT remember, use BOTH for takeoff and landing and confirm you placed the selector to where you want it…there have been plenty of engine “losses” because the pilot put the selector half-way or to a position they didn’t really want…confirm position and selection every time you move the fuel selector.
© 2019 SER GA-075. All rights reserved.